The U.S. Department of Labor (“DOL”) has recently extended the relief previously granted to five financial institutions which allows these banks to continue to rely on the QPAM exemption (Prohibited Transaction Exemption 84-14). The QPAM exemption permits ERISA plans and comingled funds to engage in transactions with “parties in interest” to those ERISA clients without running afoul of ERISA’s prohibited transaction rules, provided that the ERISA plan or fund is managed by a qualified professional asset manager (“QPAM”) and certain other conditions are satisfied.  Continue Reading DOL Extends QPAM Relief to Five Financial Institutions

At the table in the kitchen, there were three bowls of porridge.  Goldilocks was hungry.  She tasted the porridge from the first bowl.

“This porridge is too hot!” she exclaimed.

So, she tasted the porridge from the second bowl.

“This porridge is too cold,” she said

So, she tasted the last bowl of porridge.

“Ahhh, this porridge is just right,” she said happily and she ate it all up.

 

Virtually all companies that offer participant-directed retirement plans permit their participants to elect an income-producing, low risk, liquid fund, such as a money market fund or a stable value fund. A stable value fund, as the name suggests, is a conservative investment option designed to provide stability, as opposed to growth.

Stable value funds have desirable features.  By combining bonds and an investment wrap, participants can achieve bond-like returns without the interest-rate volatility present in bond funds.  But those features do not eliminate the risk of losses, they just delay them. Indeed, a stable value fund with a longer duration is riskier than a fund with a shorter duration.

The stability-enhancing features of a stable value fund mean that, if a stable value fund invests in a bond that defaults, the value of the fund will not take an immediate tumble, but the loss will be amortized over a period of time.  Over the long run, the performance of a stable value fund approaches the performance of the underlying bond portfolio, minus the expenses of maintaining the wrap coverage and administering the fund.

There is, however, no typical stable value fund. According to How to Evaluate Stable Value Funds and Their Managers by Andrew Apostol, “[d]ue to the varying expectations of individual plan sponsors and the range of management techniques used by their stable value managers, there is not a single style or strategy that is common across all stable value funds.” For example, the plans for a Silicon Valley startup or a hedge fund will differ. Even if both aim for stability, the participants likely have different risk targets, which will lead to different markups across stable value funds.

Even though there is no typical stable value fund, there are three typical types of lawsuits filed against fiduciaries offering stable value funds. Fiduciaries have been sued for 1) offering a stable value fund that is too risky and 2) offering a stable value fund that is not risky enough. Only Goldilocks, it seems, could safely offer a stable value fund.

Considering the litigation risks for fiduciaries who do not set the stable value fund just right—a task that always looks easier in the hindsight of a lawsuit—a fiduciary may conclude the best option is not to offer a stable value fund at all. Yet fiduciaries have also been sued for 3) not offering a stable value fund. Let’s take a deeper dive into these three bears of a lawsuit. Continue Reading Stable Value Funds: A Financial Investment with Risky Litigation Consequences

As we previously reported in our Legal Update, in April 2016 the U.S. Department of Labor (“DOL”) replaced its 1975 regulation that set the parameters for determining when a person should be treated as a fiduciary under ERISA when providing advice with respect to investment matters (the “Fiduciary Rule”).  The new definition treats persons who provide investment advice or recommendations for a fee or other compensation with respect to assets of a plan or IRA as fiduciaries in a much wider array of relationships than was true under the 1975 regulation. In connection with the publication of the new Fiduciary Rule, the DOL also published two new administrative class exemptions from the prohibited transaction provisions of ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code—the BIC Exemption and the Principal Transactions Exemption—as well as amendments to PTE 84-24, commonly relied upon for the sale of insurance contracts to ERISA plans.  As discussed in the Legal Update, just as plan fiduciaries geared up for these major changes, the DOL began to back peddle as a result of the change in administration and new leadership at the DOL. So where are we now? Continue Reading DOL Fiduciary Rule Update – Where Are We Now?

A collective investment trust (“CIT”) is a longstanding vehicle used by banks and trust companies to commingle the assets of qualified retirement trusts for investment.  In recent years, CITs are enjoying a resurgence for defined contribution plans as an alternative to mutual funds in a 401(k) plan line up. The primary reason for the new popularity of CITs is that they often have a lower expense ratio than mutual funds as a result of being free from the extensive regulatory requirements imposed on mutual funds under the securities laws.  But there are many other differences between CITs and mutual funds that plan fiduciaries should understand when adding an investment option structured as a CIT to their 401(k) plan line up.  This blog provides a number of examples of issues that plan fiduciaries who are not familiar with CITs could miss. Continue Reading Collective Investment Trusts – What DC Plan Fiduciaries Should Know